It occupies the eastern part of South America and is the fifth biggest country in the world. It covers almost half of South America and shares its borders with all countries except Chile and Ecuador, bordering the east and north-east of the Atlantic Ocean. The land of Brazil consists of a plateau that forms the Brazilian arm, covers about 60% of the total area of Brazil, and occupies the eastern and southern range of the country. The second part of Brazil is coastal plains in the east and north. The third part is the Amazon River basin, and occupies a large part of the land of Brazil, Amazon, the largest rivers of South America in length, and the world's most flowing rivers, and occupies one third of the country. Origin of the name:
The name of country “Brazil” goes back to the era after the Portuguese occupation, when the name related to the Bau-Brazil tree; this famous tree that grows in Brazil and tends to the red color; that was exported to Europe for industrialization.
In the north of the country there are plains of the Amazon basin and in the south or the ocean side there are many low-height mountain series, which in some areas may reach 2,900. The highest peaks of the country are Pico da Neblina, near the Brazilian-Venezuelan border, and reach 3,014 meters above sea level. Amazon is the world's largest river in terms of flow and volume passing through the Brazilia territory. It is also penetrated by the rivers of Parana, Iguazu, Black River, Rio Negro, Sao Francisco, Chingo and Madeira.
Brazil is extending its sovereignty over several islands in the Atlantic Ocean:
- The Archipelago of Fernando de Norona is the most famous one.
Brazil's most heavily population concentrate in the coastal plain and the population concentration decreases as we enter the interior. The population of the southern regions in general are Europeans who began to migrate to these areas since the sixteenth century. Most immigrants to Brazil came from Italy, Germany, Japan, Portugal, Spain, Lebanon, Syria and Palestine. There are also other communities such as the Polish, Dutch, Ukrainian, Chinese and North Korean communities.
The majority of the inhabitants of the northern and north-eastern regions are of different ethnicities, the indigenous population of the country as well as those of African descent, and the majority of Europeans are concentrated in the south.
The rate of immigrants:
Italians: 15% of Brazil's population which is 28 million.
Spanish : 8% of Brazil's population (15 million).
Germans: 6% of Brazil's population (12 million).
Lebanese: 4% of Brazil's population (8 million).
Syrians: 2% of Brazil's population (2.5 million).
Palestinians: 0.4% of Brazil's population (1.3 million).
Poles: 0.7% of Brazil's population (1.5 million).
The Japanese: 0.7% of Brazil's population (1.5 million).
The majority of Brazilians are Catholics and there are other religions such as Islamic and African religions. The culture :
The breadth of Brazil made it a country rich in civilizations and traditions from all over the world that came with immigrants and mixed with indigenous peoples. That is why there is no indigenous Brazilian culture but a mixture of different cultures and civilizations. After centuries of Portuguese occupation, the Portuguese culture and civilization still affect Brazil and the language is still the official language that brings together all cultures.
But, even though Brazil was occupied by the Portuguese, some peoples have influenced the culture significantly, such as indigenous people, Africans, Italians, Germans and other communities such as the Japanese and Arab communities. Languages :
The official language in Brazil is Portuguese and there are native languages that Indian tribes use to communicate. Besides the Portuguese language, European minorities in the south of the country use their original languages to communicate; in purpose of preserving their culture and traditions and teaching them to new generations; as well as confirming their ties to their European origins such as Italian, German, Polish and others.
Tourism is one of Brazil's sources of income. The average number of tourists who have visited Brazil during the recent years is about 5 million. Rio de Janeiro is the most visited tourist destination with 34.7%, , Santa catarina 25.1%, Paraná 20.3%, Sao Paulo 16%, and Bahia 15.5%.
Brazil is an agricultural country, with more than 26% of the country's agricultural labor force. The most important agricultural products are maize, wheat, sugar cane and cotton. Grazing is one of the most important economic activities because of the huge potential of grass resources and livestock recourses such as ( cattle, sheep and goats). Brazil has an important wealth of tropical forests, produces hardwoods and softwoods, also it is considered the second in the production of chromium. It also produces uranium, manganese, iron, aluminum and gold, And mineral resources also play an important role in the Brazilian economy. The industry was newly established in Brazil and grew after the Second World War. A few thousand factories were established and the value of industrial production in recent years exceeded the value of agricultural production.
Brazil was discovered in 1500, by the Portuguese sailor, Pedro Alvarez Cabral. Then the Portuguese started arriving heavily to Brazil, They exterminated the indigenous people, bought the slaves from Africa in 1550. And in 1888 slavery was abolished.
The largest country in South America consists of a part of this continent; which was under Portuguese colonial. It is called Portuguese America. The date of Portuguese colonization of Brazil, is related to the era of its discovery (906 AH – 1500 AD)
The conflict to colonize the continent began between Spain and Portugal at the end of the fifteenth century AD,
And ended with the signing of an agreement between them (900 AH – 1494 AD); through which the land was divided; the land which is currently called Brazil is for Portugal; and the rest of the continent is the share of Spain. Since that Portuguese immigrants began their arrival to Brazil, and founded the city of Santos as a Concentration point, Then they start bringing the African slave under the slave trade curtain, The Portuguese brought six million Africans between the years (956 AH - 1549 AD) and (1286H - 1850 AD). Bahia was the capital of the Portuguese colony, and then became the city of Rio de Janeiro and finally moved to be Brasilia. Brazil's independence was declared in (1307 - 1889). It is divided into 22 states, Portuguese is the official language.
Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world by area. It has an area of 8,547,403 km², about half of South America. Low mountains and wide plateaus occupy two-thirds of Brazil's territory. The rest consists of low forested land. Brazil has more than 1,000 rivers, the largest of them are: the Amazon, Parana, Sao Francisco and Tapajos.
Brazil, with the exception of the southern part, is located in the equatorial region, and most of the country's climate is warm to hot throughout the year. Mountains and plateaus are characterized by low temperatures unlike lowlands. The sea breeze softens coastal areas. The rain falls heavily on many parts of Brazil. The warm climate and the great quantity of rain have made Brazil one of the world's leading agricultural crops countries. However, some areas of the north-east are experiencing severe drought.
Brazil can be divided into three main regions:
1. The Amazon region. 2. Northern Territory 3. Central and southern plateaus.
The Amazon region extends across much of northern Brazil. And it occupies more than half of the state. This region consists mainly of lowlands covered by the bush and tropical rainforests called Selva. The Territory has two mountainous regions, the Guyana highlands in the far north and the Brazilian highlands in the south. The highest mountain in Brazil, Pico da Neblina, rises to 3,014 meters near the Brazilian-Venezuelan border.
The average annual temperature of Manaus, the largest city in the center of the Amazon, is 27 ° C. Rain falls over the Amazon during all the year and falls heavily between December and May. The Amazon region is characterized by a lack of development, low demographic growth and dispersal of the population due to the harsh terrain and climate. Around 7% of Brazil's population lives in this region. This region gained its name from the Amazon River, which flows from Peru. Amazonian waters flow 3,158 km across Brazil's rain forest. And this river pours into the Atlantic Ocean. The Amazon River is the second largest river in the world, after the River Nile. Ocean vessels can sail along the entire Amazon via Brazil.
Brazil's rain forests include more than 40,000 species of plants. The trees grow more in these forests than in other parts of the world. Scientists have discovered more than 3,000 species of trees growing at 2.6 km². These trees include Brazil's giant nut tree, which is about 64 meters height. There are other types of trees such as rice, chordia, kapok, mahogany, purple heart trees, rosewood and rubber. These forests produce medicines, fruit, wood juice, walnut and wood.
The Amazon region also has different species of animals. More than 1,500 species of birds live in forests. These species include parakeets, parrots, birds of the tuscan and other birds with beautiful colors, resembling a rainbow. Many species of monkeys join these birds. Between the branches and along the banks of the river lives an anaconda snake, which is about nine meters long, and there are other types of snakes. Ants, beetles, butterflies, mosquitoes and other insects also live in the region. Other species of the Amazon include the Anteater , the Tigers, the lions, the crocodiles and the water pig. The water pig is one of the largest rodents in the world and may weigh up to 45 km.
It includes part of Brazil and bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It extends south from Maranhão into Bahia and occupies less than one-fifth of Brazil's territory. Nearly 30% of the population lives there.
The northeastern part includes two sub-regions: the coastal plain and the sertão (or the internal black lands). The coastal plain is located along the Atlantic coast and has large area of land characterized by fertile red soil. Farmers cultivate cocoa, sugarcane and tobacco . Some large cities extend along the coast. These include Fortaleza, Recife and Salvador.
The sertão region includes a plateau of low population and parts of the Brazilian hills . The farmers in the sertão mainly work on animal husbandry . As well as cultivating beans, cassava, cotton and maize. Good Grazing Lands are few in the region and most of the soil is unfit for agriculture. As a result, agricultural production has declined in this region in general.
Two main rivers, the Paribas and San Francisco rivers, pass through the interior.
Northeast has a large thermal range. The temperature varies greatly at the interior, ranging from 12 ° C to 42 ° C during the year. But the temperature remains more than its average during the year; in the coastal city of Recife , where the average reaches about 27 ° C.
The annual rainfall rate in the northeast varies from approximately 170 cm in some coastal areas to approximately 25 cm in the interior. Almost all rainfall falls from December to April. Heavy rains often cause rivers to flood on arable land. Whereas, the internal areas experience frequent droughts. Some severe droughts have continued for more than two years, making the region drought-dry desert.
The northeastern inhabitants of Brazil, who are known as Nordestinos, suffer from harsh life. Most of these live in mud huts with dirt floors. Because of the drought in this region, occasional flooding and soil poverty, the inhabitants must always be prepared to fight if whenever it needs. The most land is used to grow food crops to meet the needs of farmers only. Life in cities in the north-eastern region is also harsh. There are some large industries in this region but the unemployment rate is high. Millions of people suffer from diseases and bad nutrition. Life-age average in the north-eastern part is only 49 years, and this age is below the national average.
Central and Southern plateaus Region
The central and southern plateaus are located in the south of both the Amazon region and the north-eastern region. It covers about 25% of Brazil and includes most of Brazil's highlands. Its height ranges between 300 and 900 m above sea level. The steep slopes, known as the Great Rift, extend along the coast on the southeastern tip of the highlands. This has hindered access to the interior, which has led to rapid growth and prosperity of coastal cities.
More than half of Brazil's population lives in this plateau province, many of them concentrated in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and the surrounding areas. This region, known as Brazil's economic heartland, is also characterized by the finest types of farms in terms of Soil fertility and the best horse and livestock farms in the country. In addition, the region contains some precious metals.
Farmers in the plateau province, plant coffee; which is the top of Brazil's agricultural exports; in large farms known as Vazenda. Farmers also cultivate cotton, grapes, potatoes, rice, soybeans, sugar cane and wheat. The region is characterized by large stocks of gold, iron ore, manganese and other minerals.
The Parana River is the main river in this region. The largest power generation project is located on the Itaipu dam on the Parana River. Near the Iguazu River and at the border between Brazil and Argentina, locates the majestic Iguazu waterfalls, whose water drops from a height of 72 m.
These plateaus are characterized by their cooler climate than in the Amazon and Northeast regions. The average daily temperature in Sao Paulo is about 23 ° C in January and about 16 ° C in July. Much of the winter frosts appear in the state of Parana and occasional snow falls in the state of Santa Catarina. The year-round rainfall is about 130 cm in the plateau. The rainy season lasts from November to May.
There is a vast swamp called Pantanal along the Paraguay River, with Brazil's borders with Bolivia and Paraguay. The Pantanal is populated by a small population, mostly farmers who raise cattle and horses. The area is full of huge swarms of water birds and many other animals.
The Brazilian economy is the largest economy in Latin America and the second largest economy in the Americas after the United States and the seventh in the world. Brazil is one of the world's leading food producers and the third largest source of food after the United States and the European Union. The agricultural sector represents 5.9% of GDP and 15.7% of the labor force. Brazil has the largest commercial herd of cattle in the world (about 200 million heads and large natural pastures). Brazil has benefited from the rise in the prices of raw materials in recent years, which led to the increase in the volume of trade with abroad. Brazil has a variety of energy sources, including nuclear power, and is one of the few countries in the world that has huge sources of clean and renewable energy, which produces 79.8% of the country's total energy. Brazil is also one of the world's leading producers of ethanol that is produced from sugar cane.
The industrial sector is one of the main pillars of the Brazilian economy, accounting for 22.2% of GDP and 13.3% of the labor force. The automotive, mining, petrochemicals, aircraft and food industries are the most important industrial activities in Brazil. The services sector (trade, tourism, banking, telecommunications and public sector) accounts for 71.9% of GDP and employs 71% of the labor force.
Although Brazil is asserting its strength through the wealth of natural resources (oil, gas, minerals and huge hydroelectric potentials) and its ownership of vital industries such as food industries, biofuels, aviation, automobile industry and mining, as well as the major investment in infrastructure and logistics sector to raise competitiveness and attract foreign investment, But the country is currently facing significant economic and financial difficulties; according to the experts due to the poor economic and financial management in the previous government; that was through the implementation of the policy of tax support for some productive and industrial sectors; Where the country gave up revenues that could have helped it overcome the severe financial deficit it is currently experiencing.
It is a combination of European, African and original food. The traditional dish in the country consists of rice, beans and meat, and the popular dish (Figuada). The variety of dishes in Brazil varies by variety of customs and traditions by region and race. Seafood is common in coastal areas and Japanese, Italian and Arabic dishes are more common in Sao Paulo. In The southern regions mostly European food is more found.
Influenced by the rhythms of Portuguese, African and indigenous rhythms. It is also a mixture of several cultures.
Brazil's transportation system is limited to land roads that reach the north and south of the country despite the plenty of rivers. The country is characterized by poor use of rail transport. The Brazilian citizen also depends on Air transport across the country's wide geographical area. The transport of goods and products is mostly by truck via road.
Brazil is the main gateway to the South American region and is connected to many countries of the world by organized flights operated by the world's largest airlines such as Emirates Airline, Etihad Airways and European and American airlines companies. Local airlines companies also link the most important Brazilian cities, especially capitals of the states.
The massive extent of Brazil makes the opening of new roads and the maintenance of existing roads a difficult and costly task, which led the country to involve the private sector in the management, modernization and maintenance of roads. Most of these roads link the most important Brazilian cities in the center of the country, south and south-east.
Football is the most important sport in Brazil. The Brazilian national team is one of the strongest teams in the world and has been crowned world champion on five occasions. Other sports are of great interest in Brazil such as basketball, volleyball, athletics, indoor football and others.
Brazil has hosted numerous international sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup in 1950 and 2014 and also hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games "Rio de Janeiro 2016"
Acacia, Aguas, Amba, Amazon, Bahia, Ceara, Esperito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Barra, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Ruraima, Santa Catarina, State of Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins, Federal Sector "Brasilia"
Official name: Federal Republic of Brazil
Type of government: a federal presidential republic composed of 26 states and a federal sector (Brasilia)
Head of State and / or Government: His Excellency Michel Tamer, since 31 August 2016
Area: 8511965 square km, 5 in the world
Main cities: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Salvador de Bahia, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Recife, Belem, Goiania
Official language: Portuguese
Currency: Brazilian Real (1 U $ = 3.30 SR on 23/11/2016)
National Day: 7 September
- population: 200 million people 2015), ranked fifth in the world
- population Intensity: 22 per square kilometer
- Population growth: 1.33%
- Life age average : 73.62 years (69.7 years for men and 77.3 years for women)
- Literacy rate: 89%
- Religion (s): Roman Catholics (68%); Evangelicals (20%)
- Human Development Index: 0.73 (85).
Internet Code: br.
International calling code: +55.